Updated: 6 days ago
With all the changes that have been made to National Insurance contributions for this tax year, you’re not alone if you’re struggling to discern how exactly your employer NI contributions have changed and what you need to pay.
Make your life easier with our employer NI calculator 2022/23.
How is National Insurance calculated?
This guide walks you through the fundamentals of the employer National Insurance calculation for the latest NI rates and thresholds for 2022/23 and our employer NI calculator takes the stress out of working out your contributions for this year.
In this section, we’ll go over the rules behind the National Insurance contributions calculation, what factors play into it, how contributions have changed in 2022/23 and how they differ between employees and employers. In particular, this article looks at
National Insurance categories
National Insurance rates
National Insurance thresholds
National Insurance increase in 2022/23
National Insurance threshold calculator
National Insurance increase for 2022/23
As we outlined in our blog ‘What you need to know about the National Insurance Rise 2022’, there have been some substantial changes to NI contributions 22/23.
Briefly, from April 6, contributions increased by 1.25%, as did the contribution threshold (from £9,568 to £9,880). The income threshold will see a rise in July to £12,570. These measures will last for one year and apply to both employees and employers.
From April 2023, this increase will persist but in the form of a Health & Social Care levy. NI contributions are set to return to their previous NI rate.
The National Insurance category
In order to calculate NI deductions correctly, you need to assign an employee the correct National Insurance category.
There are 8 broad employee National Insurance categories, which are dependent on personal factors such as age, marital status and employment history such as having another job, being an apprentice or a veteran.
Most employees in the UK as of tax year 2022/23 have NI code A, which is the default National Insurance category and applied to anyone who does not fall into any of the other NI categories listed in the below NI category letter table for 2022/23.
This table lists the NI categories for 2022:
Category A covers all employees except those in categories B, C, H, J, M, V and Z. Most employees fall under category A
Married and widowed women who are eligible for reduced NI contributions
Employees who are over the State Pension age
Apprentices under the age of 25
Employees who are paying their NI contributions through another job
Employees under the age of 21
Army Veterans in their first employment
Employees under the age of 21 who are also paying their NI contributions through another job
Note that the National Insurance number (NINO) has nothing to do with the NI category, as its a random identifier for HMRC for a tax person in the UK, which never changes, while the NI category of a person may change over time.
How to calculate employers National Insurance contributions (NI Class 1)
Calculating employers National Insurance is straightforward: employers pay 0% on income below a certain threshold and 15.05% above that threshold. Use this NI calculation UK formula:
Employers NI = National Insurance rate x Income above NI threshold
For the most common NI classes (A, B, C and J) this threshold is the Secondary Threshold, which is subject to the National Insurance increase this tax year. For certain young employees (H, M) and veterans (V) the income threshold is the much higher Upper Earnings Limit.
National Insurance rates
Use this table to determine employer National Insurance rates for 2022/23 UK (effective from 6 April 2022). Multiply any earnings above the threshold by the National Insurance rate, shown in the table below, to get the employer National Insurance you need to pay for an employee.
National Insurance rate
National Insurance rate
A, B, C, J, H, M, V
National Insurance threshold
Use this table to determine National Insurance thresholds 2022/23 (effective from 6 July 2022). Income above these thresholds is subject to employers NI contributions at the NI rate determined above.
A, B, C, J
H, M, V, Z
Employers NI calculator 2022/23 (table)
Below you can see monthly employer and employee NI contributions for salaries ranging between £20,000 and £80,000 per year, applied for NI category letters A, B, C and J. These are taking into account the increased NI rates effective 6 April 2022 and the increased income thresholds effective 6 July 2022.
Monthly Employer NI
Monthly Employee NI
(13.25% + 3.25%)
National Insurance Credits
Employers which had less than £100,000 in employers NI in the past tax year have an annual employment allowance of £5,000 in the 2022/23 tax year, which can be deducted from employers NI when paying HMRC. These National Insurance credits, renew every tax year, as long as you stay below the total NI threshold, subject to change.
National Insurance credits are going up in tax year 2022/23 to £5000 compared to just £4,000 in the year prior.
Employee benefits and in some cases expenses are also subject to National Insurance
So far so good. But there are a few more things you need to take into considerations in order to account for other income subject to National Insurance, such as benefits and some expenses. There are also more things to considers for directors and PAYE settlement agreements.
Employers Class 1A NI contributions on employee expenses and benefits
National Insurance is also payable on any employee benefits or expenses. Employers must report and pay this particular NI liability at the end of the tax year.
You must pay NI on benefits such as work phones, accommodation, and bonuses. Note that every expense and benefit is calculated differently, so you need to check on what you’re required to report and pay.
You will need to complete a P11D form for every employee that you have given benefits or expenses to and return it to HMRC. It is possible to deduct and pay class 1A NI through your payroll as long as you remember to register with HMRC before the beginning of the tax year.
NI Contributions for Directors of Limited Companies
Company directors count as employees and therefore are required to pay NI contributions on any income over £9,880. Your NI liability is calculated from annual earnings but is paid in accordance with your payroll schedule.
Even if you’re the only employee of your company and you’re the director, your company will still need to pay employers NI on your salary.
Class 1B NI - PAYE Settlement Agreement (PSA)
A PSA allows employers to make a single payment per year that covers any tax and National Insurance contributions that are due on ‘minor, irregular or impracticable’ employee expenses or benefits. These are known as Class 1B National Insurance contributions. Benefits that are covered include long service incentives, telephone bills, relocation expenses, and shared cars.
2023 & The Social Care and Health Levy
Looking ahead, employers need to ensure their payroll software will automatically reflect the introduction of the new Social Care and Health Levy in April 2023. Your payslips will need to include the levy as a separate item. In addition, the levy will also be paid by employees that are over the State Pension age.
How much do I deduct from employee pay for National Insurance contributions (NI Class 1)?
As an employer, you are responsible for automatically deducting your employees’ NI contributions from their pay as part of NI Class 1 contributions. Most employees are on NI code A which has a free income threshold of £1,048 and NI rates A consisting of
13.25% for income between £1,048 and £4,189 per month
3.25% on income above £4,189
The new NI rates and thresholds for 22/23 are reflected in the NI category letter table below and you can find out more details and an employee NI calculator in our next blog article.
up to £1,048
£1,048 to £4,189
A, F, H, M, V
J, L, Z
Employers also need to ensure that they’re aware of HMRC’s request with regard to payslips: Employers (where appropriate) should include a message that states ‘1.25% uplift in NICS, funds NHS, health & social care’ to clarify to their employees exactly why their contributions (and therefore deductions) have increased.
Once you wrap your head around it, the National Insurance hike, though costly, is straightforward. That being said, with the income thresholds changing again in July, you don’t want to be adjusting your payroll manually. Your payroll software should be unified and automated, implementing the changes to the National Insurance calculation seamlessly. Not only should these changes in NI be reflected automatically, but you should be able to communicate directly with your employees in order to explain and contextualize any National Insurance changes they see on their payslips, which will help you improve the employee experience. Finally, you may want to explore methods of reducing your NI bill that might benefit both you and your employees.
FAQs about Employer National Insurance
How much National Insurance do I pay?
How much National Insurance you pay is impacted by factors around how much you earn and your employment status. If you are an employee under the State Pension age and earn more than £242 a week you and your employer pay Class 1 NI contributions. They’re automatically deducted by your employer from your pay, and employers pay an additional employer NI contribution on top.
Do employers pay National Insurance in the UK?
Yes, they do. Employers deduct their employees’ National Insurance contributions and pay on their behalf. In addition, employers pay an additional National Insurance contribution on their employees’ earnings above the relevant threshold.
How much NI does an employer pay in the UK?
It depends on the size of your business and the National Insurance category of your employees. As we’ve seen, for the tax year 22/23, employers need to pay a 15.05% contribution on any employee earnings exceeding the secondary threshold, which is £175/week or £758/month.
What percentage is National Insurance?
For employees with NI class A, the NI threshold is £,1048 below which you pay 0%. Between £,1048 and £,4189 employees pay 13.25% and above that 3.25% on their income.
Do employers pay NI for employees in the U.K.?
U.K. employers are required to deduct their employees’ national insurance contributions as well as paying their own contributions ‘employer national insurance’ on their employees’ earnings.